Flight calls of migratory birds

Back in 2003, The Sound Approach created a CD and booklet titled Out of the blue, for the subscribers of the Dutch Birding journal to mark the 25th anniversary of the Dutch Birding Association (www.dutchbirding.nl). It was meant as a solid starter CD for those birders who try to identify all migratory bird calls, eg, at migration watchpoints (cf www.trektellen.nl). With 119 high-quality, carefully selected and prepared recordings of 57 species, accompanied by a text with full documentation, the CD is still a useful identification guide today. That’s why, with thanks to Dutch Birding, we present it on our website for you to enjoy and to use as a resource.

Every autumn offers a lot of excitement to birders. Mostly along our coasts but also inland, surprise vagrants turn up from far-away places. For instance, at the time of writing (17 October 2016), an unprecedented influx of more than 60 (and still counting) Siberian Accentors Prunella montanella more than tripled the total number ever recorded in northern Europe (outside Russia), with a few turning up for the first time even as far west as Britain. Plenty of other scarce or rare Siberian species have been and will be found as well and, as always with migrants, it is often by their sound that they are first discovered.

Since 2003, The Sound Approach has published several books containing migratory bird calls, also of species not covered in Out of the blue. For instance, listen to the CDs in The Sound Approach to birding (first edition in 2006) and, especially, chapter 14 in Catching the Bug (2012).

 

Out of the blue: flight calls of migrants and vagrants

 

‘Sitting on the top of the dunes, using a parabola to pick out rarities from flocks of passing migrants, while still in its infancy, is gaining a following, including these authors. This new aspect of birding (earwigging) is comparable to digiscoping. Birds that would have passed unnoticed are picked out and amplified as they fly over. They can be recorded, and their identification checked when analysed by computer.’ (Mark Constantine 26 July 2003)

Authors: Arnoud B van den Berg, Mark Constantine & Magnus S Robb. Compilation and engineering: Roy Slaterus. Recordists: Magnus S Robb, Arnoud B van den Berg, Killian Mullarney & Mark Constantine. Lay-out: André J van Loon. Copyright of all recordings and text: The Sound Approach. Original booklet and CD published by: Dutch Birding Association, Amsterdam, 2003

Selection

‘Out of the blue: flight calls of migrants and vagrants’ presents sound-recordings of interesting and difficult-to-identify species in north-western Europe in such a way as to facilitate comparisons. For example, almost all relevant species of lark Alaudidae, pipit Anthus and bunting Emberizidae are dealt with. A particular effort was made to limit the selection to calls given either during migration flight or when taking off. As indicated in the track details, some recordings of birds not in flight are included in cases when the calls are also known to be used in flight.

Recording equipment

Most recordings were made using a DAT-recorder – the Sony TCD-D10 Pro II, Tascam DA-P1, Sony TCD-D100 and Sony PCM-M1, in all cases with a parabolic microphone, the Telinga Pro 5 with stereo DATmic.

Track details

Nomenclature and taxonomy follow Dutch Birding. For each recording the following information is given: duration of cut, location, date, time (where known), description, and recordist’s reference number. The latter contains two digits for year (2000-2003), three for DAT number, two initials (AB for Arnoud B van den Berg, KM for Killian Mullarney, MC for Mark Constantine and MR for Magnus Robb), five for time position on DAT, and the final two for degree of editing and filtering, respectively, where 0 is none and 4 is extensive. Note that there are no alterations to the original timing (eg, ‘loops’, or shortened pauses between calls) and where extraneous sounds have been edited out, these have been replaced with neutral background. Filtering (traffic, wind etc) has been kept to a minimum, and care has been taken (using sonagrams) to limit this to frequencies other than those of the vocalization in question. In the description, number, age and sex are given where possible, behavioural aspects and the context in which the sound was made are indicated, comments on the usefulness for identification are made, and background species are listed where relevant.

 

01 Lesser White-fronted Goose Anser erythropus

a (0:00-0:10) Anjum, Friesland, Netherlands, 4 March 2003. Single individual in flight. (03.004.MR.04417b.21)

b (0:10-0:25) Anjum, Friesland, Netherlands, 4 March 2003. Excited flock of 12 in flight. (03.004.MR.04124c.03)

c (0:25-0:46) Petten, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 31 January 2001. Although this was a mixed-species flock, almost all calls are of a family of Lesser White-fronted Goose. Background: Greater White-fronted Goose A albifrons albifrons. (01.003.MR.02620.01)

 

02 Greater White-fronted Goose Anser albifrons albifrons

a (0:00-0:16) Groote Peel, Noord-Brabant, Netherlands, 20 January 2001. First-winter in flight. (01.001.MR.04552.10)

b (0:16-0:25) Workum, Friesland, Netherlands, 14 February 2001. Unusual calls in flight, possibly of alarmed birds. (01.004.MR.00253.01)

c (0:25-0:41) Workum, Friesland, Netherlands, 14 February 2001. Flock in flight, showing how varied the calls can be. (01.003.MR.10521.01)

 

03 Greenland White-fronted Goose Anser albifrons flavirostris

a (0:00-0:20) North Slob, Wexford, Ireland, 4 February 2001. Single individual in flight. (01.003.KM.01148b.00)

b (0:20-0:46) North Slob, Wexford, Ireland, 4 February 2001. Small group in flight (with pronounced Doppler effect). (01.003.KM.01148d.00)

c (0:46-1:16) North Slob, Wexford, Ireland, 4 February 2001. Flock in flight; the voices of a few individuals dominate. (01.003.KM.00544.00)

 

04 Common Crane Grus grus

a (0:00-0:25) Lac du Der-Chantecoq, Marne, France, 25 February 2003, 07:15. Flock of 20 adults and first-winters in flight formation. Shrill calls made by first-winters. (03.002.AB.04450.00)

b (0:25-0:52) Lac du Der-Chantecoq, Marne, France, 25 February 2003, 18:40. Adults and first-winters in flight. Shrill calls made by first-winters. (03.002.AB.15020.00)

 

05 Demoiselle Crane Grus virgo

a (0:00-0:09) Phalodi, Rajasthan, India, 21 January 2001. Adult and first-winter in flight, with many others in the background. (02.004.MR.12457.00)

b (0:09-1:09) Phalodi, Rajasthan, India, 21 January 2001. Flock of several 1000s adults and first-winters in flight. Shrill calls, especially at the beginning, made by first-winters. (02.004.MR.11657.00)

 

06 Blue-cheeked Bee-eater Merops persicus

(0:00-0:28) Birecık, Turkey, 19 May 2001. Two adults calling first from perch, then in flight. (01.021.MR.10203.01)

 

07 European Bee-eater Merops apiaster

a (0:00-0:44) Dadia, Thraki, Greece, 30 April 2002. Several perched in tree during thunderstorm. Calls similar to those given in flight. Background: Common Nightingale Luscinia megarhynchos. (02.020.MR.15319)

b (0:44-1:15) Barrage el Mansour, Ouarzazate, Morocco, 30 March 2002, 12:22. Calls by flock of c 50 on migration. Background: House Sparrow Passer domesticus. (02.007.AB.01606.02)

 

08 Calandra Lark Melanocorypha calandra

a (0:00-0:04) Kulu, Turkey, 7 May 2001. Flushed adult. Background: other Calandra Larks. (01.017.MR.05100c.00)

b (0:04-0:12) Tas-Kol, Dzhambul, Kazakhstan, 13 May 2000. Flushed adult. (00.028.MR.02204a.21)

c (0:12-0:21) Tas-Kol, Dzhambul, Kazakhstan, 13 May 2000. The same adult as in 08b, flying past a few seconds later. Background: Collared Pratincole Glareola pratincola. (00.028.MR.02204b.11)

d (0:21-0:33) Tas-Kol, Dzhambul, Kazakhstan, 13 May 2000. The loud jangling calls in this and the next recording are associated with low display flights, but are perhaps not always limited to this context. (00.028.MR.02040.01)

e (0:33-0:57) Tas-Kol, Dzhambul, Kazakhstan, 13 May 2000. Loud jangling calls used in display flight. Background: Collared Pratincole. (00.028.MR.02114.01)

 

09 Bimaculated Lark Melanocorypha bimaculata

a (0:00-0:05) Tas-Kol, Dzhambul, Kazakhstan, 10 May 2000. Flushed adult. (00.026.MR.01525.01)

b (0:05-0:13) Paphos, Cyprus, 6 April 2000. Three taking off. (00.013.MR.01550.01)

c (0:13-0:26) Paphos, Cyprus, 6 April 2000. Three taking off. (00.013.MR.01700.11)

d (0:26-0:39) Jaisalmer, Rajasthan, India, 24 January 2002. Three in flight. (02.005.MR.01802.12)

 

10 White-winged Lark Alauda leucoptera

a (0:00-0:07) Korgalzhyn, Aqmola Oblast, Kazakhstan, 24 May 2003. Calls during display flight, which may also be given in other contexts; the first low and soft-toned, sounding like Melanocorypha larks when flushed (formerly, this species also belonged to Melanocorypha). (03.020.MR.02109b.01)

b (0:07-0:20) Korgalzhyn, Aqmola Oblast, Kazakhstan, 28 May 2003. Two often-heard call types in flight. (03.022.MR.02853.02)

c (0:20-0:33) Korgalzhyn lake, Aqmola Oblast, Kazakhstan, 21 May 2003. Calls in flight, away from breeding territory. (03.018.MR.00124.01)

d (0:33-0:47) Korgalzhyn, Aqmola Oblast, Kazakhstan, 24 May 2003. Two individuals, probably engaged in pursuit flight. A characteristic of calls of this species is that many are disyllabic, or given twice in quick succession. (03.020.MR.02445b.01)

e (0:47-1:07) Korgalzhyn, Aqmola Oblast, Kazakhstan, 24 May 2003. Various calls in display flight which may be heard separately in other contexts. (03.020.MR.10700c.11)

 

11 Black Lark Melanocorypha yeltoniensis

a (0:00-0:06) Tengiz lake, Aqmola Oblast, Kazakhstan, 24 May 2003. Low-pitched wyu in flight, similar to calls sometimes given by flushed Calandra Lark M calandra (cf track 08a). (03.020.AB.15440.01)

b (0:06-0:10) Sholak lake, Aqmola Oblast, Kazakhstan, 28 May 2003. Often-heard call of male, in this case just before taking off. (03.022.MR.10118.01)

c (0:10-0:25) Sholak lake, Aqmola Oblast, Kazakhstan, 28 May 2003. Various calls of female before taking off. (03.022.MR.05117.10)

d (0:25-0:33) Korgalzhyn lake, Aqmola Oblast, Kazakhstan, 18 May 2003. Male in flight. (03.016.AB.03103.01)

e (0:33-0:43) Korgalzhyn lake, Aqmola Oblast, Kazakhstan, 18 May 2003. Various calls by male in display flight, in wide circles low over the ground; these calls may be heard separately in other contexts. (03.016.MR.11341.01)

 

12 Greater Short-toed Lark Calandrella brachydactyla

a (0:00-0:16) Paphos, Cyprus, 5 April 2000. One in flight. Background: Meadow Pipit Anthus pratensis. (00.012.MR.03205.02)

b (0:16-0:32) Paphos, Cyprus, 5 April 2000. Several in flight. Background: Red-throated Pipit A cervinus. (00.012.MR.03358.02)

c (0:32-0:50) Paphos, Cyprus, 4 April 2000. Several taking off. (00.011.MR.04908.02)

 

13 Lesser Short-toed Lark Alaudala rufescens

a (0:00-0:05) Fuerteventura, Canary Islands, 16 April 2001. Subspecies A r polatzeki. Calling when flushed. (01.012.MR.02607a.01)

b (0:05-0:17) Fuerteventura, Canary Islands, 16 April 2001. Subspecies A r polatzeki. Male; calling when flushed. (01.012.MR.02607c.01)

c (0:17-0:26) Fuerteventura, Canary Islands, 16 April 2001. Subspecies A r polatzeki. Probably female in flight. (01.012.MR.01207b.01)

d (0:26-0:33) Zeida, Moyen-Atlas, Morocco, 28 March 2002, 07:06. Subspecies A r minor. Adult in flight. (02.005.AB.15223.02)

 

14 Crested Lark Galerida cristata

a (0:00-0:04) Birecık, Turkey, 20 May 2001. Adult taking off. Background: Sand Martin Riparia riparia. (01.021.MR.14510.01)

b (0:04- 0:11) Birecık, Turkey, 20 May 2001. Adult male taking off. (01.021.MR.03532b.12)

c (0:11-0:29) Göksu delta, Turkey, 16 May 2001. Adult in short flight, followed by song strophe from the ground. (01.020.MR.00000.02)

 

15 Woodlark Lullula arborea

a (0:00-0:15) IJmuiden, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 29 September 2002. Group of eight taking off. (02.042.MR.10827.01)

b (0:15-0:30) IJmuiden, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 28 September 2002. Five migrating. Background: Meadow Pipit Anthus pratensis. (02.043.MR.02300.03)

 

16 Eurasian Skylark Alauda arvensis

a (0:00-0:09) IJmuiden, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 17 October 2001. Two migrating. (01.040.MR.15210.02)

b (0:09-0:22) IJmuiden, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 17 October 2001, 10:33. Several migrating. (01.017.AB.10648.03)

c (0:22-0:37) IJmuiden, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 17 October 2001, 10:07. Various calls while migrating. Background: Eurasian Wren Troglodytes troglodytes and Song Thrush Turdus philomelos. (01.017.AB.10330.22)

d (0:37-1:06) IJmuiden, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 17 October 2001, 09:31. Various calls while migrating. Background: Dunnock Prunella collaris and Eurasian Magpie Pica pica. (01.017.AB.05632.02)

 

17 Shorelark Eremophila flava

a (0:00-0:27) IJmuiden, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 17 October 2001. Migrating. Background: Song Thrush Turdus philomelos. (01.041.MR.12242.02)

b (0:27-0:51) IJmuiden, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 3 November 2001. Migrating. Background: European Robin Erithacus rubecula and Common Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs. (01.042.MR.10400.02)

 

18 Richard’s Pipit Anthus richardi

a (0:00-0:10) Pohang, Gyeongsangbuk-do, South Korea, 21 October 2002. Flushed. (02.048.MR.12610.11)

b (0:10-0:15) Pohang, Gyeongsangbuk-do, South Korea, 21 October 2002. Several in flight. (02.048.MR.12925c.01)

c (0:15-0:34) Pohang, Gyeongsangbuk-do, South Korea, 21 October 2002 13:58. Several in flight. Background: Siberian Buff-bellied Pipit A rubescens japonicus. (02.030.AB.13737.02)

d (0:34-0:54) IJmuiden, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 12 September 2002. Migrating. Background: Meadow Pipit A pratensis. (02.040.MR.11540)

e (0:54-1:00) Bharatpur, Rajasthan, India, 17 January 2002. One individual, together with Tawny Pipit A campestris (Richard’s Pipit calling first). (02.003.MR.10646.02)

 

19 Blyth’s Pipit Anthus godlewskii

a (0:00-0:07) Goa, India, 10 November 2001, 16:00. In flight. (01.011.KM.03900.01)

b (0:07-0:14) Goa, India, 8 November 2001, 13:30. In flight. Background: Spotted Dove Streptopelia chinensis. (01.011.KM.01846.01)

c (0:14-0:40) Goa, India, 10 November 2001, 16:00. Several in flight. Background: House Crow Corvus splendens. (01.011.KM.02835.01)

 

20 Tawny Pipit Anthus campestris

a (0:00- 0:05) Bharatpur, Rajasthan, India, 17 January 2002. Flushed. (02.003.MR.10415.01)

b (0:05-0:10) Bharatpur, Rajasthan, India, 17 January 2002. Two call types in flight. (02.003.MR.10629.02)

c (0:10-0:14) Phinikas, Paphos, Cyprus, 7 April 2000. Two call types in flight. (00.014.MR.03319a.02)

d (0:14-0:17) Shizzafon Kibbutz, Arava, Israel, 2 December 2001, 08:00. In flight. Background: Eurasian Skylark Alauda arvensis. (01.014.KM.02715a.02)

e (0:17-0:20) Shizzafon Kibbutz, Arava, Israel, 2 December 2001, 08:00. In flight. (01.014.KM.02715b.02)

 

21 Olive-backed Pipit Anthus hodgsoni

a (0:00-0:05) Nainital, Uttaranchal, India, 29 January 2002. Loud calls of single individual when flushed from perch; not often calling as loudly as this. (02.005.MR.15205.01)

b (0:05-0:12) Bharatpur, Rajasthan, India, 13 January 2001. Several during short flights. (02.001.MR.15226.01)

c (0:12-0:24) Nainital, Uttaranchal, India, 29 January 2002. Several during short flights. The second call in this track, a very short, high tit often heard in flight and on migration, is also used (repeated in long sequences) as a nest alarm call. The equivalent call in Tree Pipit A trivialis is lower-pitched and rarely heard on migration. (02.005.MR.14208b.01)

d (0:24-0:37) Nainital, Uttaranchal, India, 29 January 2002. Several during short flights. (02.005.MR.14208c.01)

e (0:37-0:52) Nainital, Uttaranchal, India, 29 January 2002. Flock slowly making its way along path in forest. (02.005.MR.14450.01)

 

22 Tree Pipit Anthus trivialis

a (0:00-0:07) IJmuiden, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 22 September 2000. Migrating. (00.045.MR.04347.01)

b (0:07-0:13) IJmuiden, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 22 September 2000. Migrating. Background: Meadow Pipit A pratensis. (00.045.MR.05203.02)

c (0:13-0:20) IJmuiden, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 2 October 2002. Migrating. Background: Meadow Pipit. (02.043.MR.14056.02)

 

23 Pechora Pipit Anthus gustavi 

a (0:00-0:20) Seosan, Chungcheongnam-do, South Korea, 13 October 2002. Either subspecies A g gustavi or A g menzbieri. Group of four flying past. (02.044.MR.20355.12)

b (0:20-0:30) Seosan, Chungcheongnam-do, South Korea, 13 October 2002, 06:41. Either subspecies A g gustavi or A g menzbieri. Migration flight. Background: calls by ufo (possibly another Pechora Pipit with sharper calls or wagtail Motacilla). (02.029.AB.00106.02)

c (0:30-0:0:42) Seosan, Chungcheongnam-do, South Korea, 13 October 2002 06:37. Either subspecies A g gustavi or A g menzbieri. Migration flight; higher and sharper calls than 23a and 23b, similar to Grey Wagtail M cinerea. (02.029.AB.00017.13)

 

24 Meadow Pipit Anthus pratensis

a (0:00-0:08) IJmuiden, Noord-Holland, 12 October 2001. High-pitched calls on migration flight. (01.041.MR.04600.02)

b (0:08-0:19) Abernethy Forest, Badenoch and Strathspey, Highland, Scotland, 17 July 2001. High-pitched calls, typical for alarmed adult. (01.034.MR.02216.10)

c (0:19-0:30) IJmuiden, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 2 October 2002. High-pitched calls; may be confused with those of Rock Pipit A petrosus when given singly. Background: Common Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs. (02.043.MR.10754)

d (0:30-0:40) IJmuiden, Noord-Holland, 30 September, 2002. Single individual migrating. (02.042.MR.15710.01)

e (0:40-0:57) IJmuiden, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 12 October 2001, 09:48. Migrating; rapidly repeated calls, somewhat similar to Buff-bellied Pipit A rubescens (01.017.AB.00143.01)

f (0:57-1:04) IJmuiden, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 27 September 2002. Varied calls while migrating. (02.041.MR.13940.01)

g (1:04-1:20) IJmuiden, Noord-Holland, 22 September 2000. Large migrating flock. (00.045.MR.04302.02)

 

25 Red-throated Pipit Anthus cervinus

a (0:00-0:03) Alonissos, Voriai Sporadhes, Greece, 12 May 2002. Flushed. (02.024.MR.13920.01)

b (0:03-0:13) Shizzafon Kibbutz, Arava, Israel, 2 December 2001, 08:00. Flushed. (01.014.KM.03350a.02)

c (0:13-0:28) Paphos, Cyprus, 5 April 2000. High and low calls. Background: Corn Bunting Emberiza calandra. (00.012.MR.04100.11)

d (0:28-0:38) IJmuiden, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 22 September 2000. Migrating. (00.045.MR.04532.11)

e (0:38-0:50) Seosan, Chungcheongnam-do, South Korea, 13 October 2002. Migrating. (02.044.MR.15346.00)

f (0:50-1:15) Shizzafon Kibbutz, Arava, Israel, 2 December 2001, 08:00. Drawn-out calls by several perched on wire. (01.014.KM.03350b.22)

 

26 Rock Pipit Anthus petrosus

a (0:00-0:03) South Ronaldsay, Orkney, Scotland, 13 July 2001. Subspecies A p petrosus. Alarmed adults. (01.032.MR.14038.10)

b (0:03-0:07) Mainland, Shetland, Scotland, 12 July 2001. Subspecies A p petrosus. High-pitched calls of alarmed adult. (01.032.MR.13730.01)

c (0:07-0:19) Rilland, Zeeland, Netherlands, 15 December 2001. Flushed. (01.043.MR.04627.11)

d (0:19-0:37) Rilland, Zeeland, Netherlands, 15 December 2001. Varied calls from small flock in flight. Background: Dark-bellied Brent Goose Branta bernicla. (01.043.MR.04012.01)

e (0:37-0:57) Rilland, Zeeland, Netherlands, 15 December 2001. Two in flight. (01.043.MR.04116c.01)

 

27 Water Pipit Anthus spinoletta

a (0:00-0:04) Zeewolde, Flevoland, Netherlands, 9 December 2001. Shrill calls when flushed. Although generally considered lower and less shrill than Rock Pipit A petrosus, calls of Water Pipit in many situations, especially in alarm, can be indistinguishable from Rock Pipit. (01.043.MR.03434.02)

b (0:04-0:10) Zeewolde, Flevoland, Netherlands, 9 December 2001. Drawn-out shrill calls when taking off, similar to calls of Rock Pipit. (01.043.MR.03452.02)

c (0:10-0:19) Zeewolde, Flevoland, Netherlands, 9 December 2001. In flight, not alarmed. (01.043.MR.03130.23)

d (0:19-0:27) Zeewolde, Flevoland, Netherlands, 3 March 2002. In flight. (02.008.MR.11350.12)

e (0:27-0:37) Sivrikaya, Rize, Turkey, 24 May 2002. Subspecies A s coutellii. In flight. (02.026.MR.05823.01)

 

28 Siberian Buff-bellied Pipit Anthus rubescens japonicus 

a (0:00-0:09) Seosan, Chungcheongnam-do, South Korea, 25 October 2002. Small flock flying short distances in feeding area. (02.050.MR.04147a.02)

b (0:09-0:21) Ganghwa-do, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea, 11 October 2002. Single individual migrating. (02.044.MR.12751.11)

c (0:21-0:40) Seosan, Chungcheongnam-do, South Korea, 25 October 2002. Small flock. (02.050.MR.04515.01)

 

29 Blue-headed Wagtail Motacilla flava

(0:00-0:0:18) Texel, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 25 April 2003. Adult male on the ground, then in flight. (03.012.MR.02445.01)

 

30 Black-headed Wagtail Motacilla feldegg

(0:00-0:13) Evros delta, Thraki, Greece, 26 April 2002. Adult male in flight. Background: Mediterranean Gull Larus melanocephalus. (02.018.MR.20043.01)

 

31 Citrine Wagtail Motacilla citreola

a (0:00-0:14) Khawr Rawri, Dhofar, Oman, 17 February 2001. Small flock. Background: Red-throated Pipit Anthus cervinus (01.005.KM.01814.01)

b (0:14-0:29) Erzurum, Turkey, 12 June, 2002. Perched adult male, perhaps slightly more drawn-out than calls in flight. Background: Cetti’s Warbler Cettia cetti, Sedge Warbler Acrocephalus schoenobaenus and Common Rosefinch Erythrina erythrina (02.034.MR.12244.01)

 

32 Bohemian Waxwing Bombycilla garrulus

a (0:00-0:30) Velserbroek, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 13 January 2003, 11:06. Small flock calling before and while flying off. (03.001.AB.01210.02)

b (0:30-0:40) Zeist, Utrecht, Netherlands, 10 February 2003, 14:20. Flock departing. (03.001.AB.05800.01)

 

33 Cedar Waxwing Bombycilla cedrorum

a (0:00-0:17) Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 14 June 2003, 13:18. Two call types by small flock, during short flights between trees. (03.028.AB.00247.01)

b (0:17-0:31) Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 14 June 2003, 12:55. Small flock in flight. (03.028.AB.00000.01)

 

34 White’s Thrush Zoothera aurea 

a (0:00-0:14) Taejongdae, Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea, 18 October 2002, 10:16. Perched, calls similar to those in flight. Background: Korean Magpie Pica serica. (02.030.AB.12217.02)

b (0:14-0:28) Taejongdae, Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea, 18 October 2002 ,10:19. Perched, calls similar to those in flight. (02.030.AB.12248.31)

 

35 Ring Ouzel Turdus torquatus

a (0.00-0:07) Texel, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 25 April 2003, 09:20. Adult male in flight. (03.012.MR.00004h.01)

b (0:07-0:10) IJmuiden, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 25 September 2001. Migrating adult. Background: Song Thrush T philomelos. (01.039.MR.01444.02)

c (0:10-0:14) Vlieland, Friesland, Netherlands, 14 October 2001. In flight. (01.040.MR.12204.21)

d (0:14-0:47) Texel, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 25 April 2003, 09:20. Perched individuals with various calls, similar to those in flight. (03.012.MR.00004g.01)

 

36 Common Blackbird Turdus merula 

a (0:00-0:07) IJmuiden, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 14 October 2001, 11:30. Migrating. (01.017.AB.04154.02)

b (0:07-0:22) IJmuiden, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 31 October 2002. Two migrating; triple repetition in latter part of recording somewhat unusual. (02.052.MR.00209.02)

c (0:22-0:41) Bloemendaal, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 17 November 2001. Perched first-year female, calling before taking off. Background: Eurasian Coot Fulica atra. (01.043.MR.01931.01)

 

37 Dusky Thrush Turdus eunomus

a (0:00-0:03) Gampo, Gyeongsangbuk-do, South Korea, 21 October 2002, 11:58. In short flight, possibly female. (02.030.AB.12629a.01)

b (0:03-0:09) Gampo, Gyeongsangbuk-do, South Korea, 21 October 2002. Perched, possibly female. (02.048.MR.10130b.00)

c (0:09-0:14) Gampo, Gyeongsangbuk-do, South Korea, 21 October 2002. Perched, possibly female. (02.048.MR.10130a.00)

 

38 Black-throated Thrush Turdus atrogularis

a (0:00-0:04) Bajun, Uttaranchal, India, 30 January 2002. Probably adult male; calls most strongly associated with flight or taking off sometimes resemble those of Bohemian Waxwing Bombycilla garrulus. (02.006.MR.01818.11)

b (0:04-0:12) Bajun, Uttaranchal, India, 30 January 2002. Several during short flights. (02.006.MR.03710a.00)

c (0:12-0:15) Bajun, Uttaranchal, India, 30 January 2002. Adult male in flight. (02.006.MR.02911a.01)

d (0:15-0:19) Bajun, Uttaranchal, India, 30 January 2002. In flight. (02.005.MR.20341.01)

e (0:19-0:40) Corbett National Park, Uttaranchal, India, 1 February 2002. Perched; compare with faster calls of Fieldfare T pilaris in 39d. Background: Red-breasted Parakeet Psittacula alexandri. (02.006.MR.10358c.11)

 

39 Fieldfare Turdus pilaris 

a (0:00-0:08) Vlieland, Friesland, Netherlands, 13 October 2001. Two call types strongly associated with flight: quee and chacking. (01.040.MR.04545.01)

b (0:08-0:13) IJmuiden, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 10 November 2001. Chuckle in flight, made up of calls similar to those in track 39a. (01.042.MR.13213.02)

c (0:13-0:19) Bloemendaal, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 3 November 2001. At end, vibrant variation of quee call. Background: Great Spotted Woodpecker Dendrocopos major. (01.042.MR.12416b.02)

d (0:19-0:38) IJmuiden, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 15 November 2001. Flock. (01.042.MR.15253.02)

e (0:38-0:51) Eijsden, Limburg, Netherlands, 3 April 2003 07:32. Adult in flight near nest. (03.005.AB.05314b.03)

 

40 Song Thrush Turdus philomelos 

a (0:00-0:15) IJmuiden, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 13 October 2001, 09:55. Migrating. Background: Meadow Pipit Anthus pratensis and Common Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs. (01.017.AB.01606.01)

b (0:15-0:25) Montfoort, Limburg, Netherlands, 15 March 2001, 12:36. Adult taking off. Background: Common Chiffchaff Phylloscopus collybita, Blue Tit Cyanistes caeruleus and Common Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs. (01.001.AB.05940.01)

c (0:25-0:34) IJmuiden, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 2 October 2002. Migrating with unusual whistling wingbeats. Background: Meadow Pipit. (02.043.MR.10850.12)

d (0:34-0:46) IJmuiden, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 17 October 2001. Atypical low calls while migrating. (01.040.MR.13628.03)

e (0:46-1:04) Ardgay, Sutherland, Scotland, 20 March 2002. Perched adult making calls similar to those in flight. Background: European Robin Erithacus rubecula and Coal Tit Periparus ater. (02.010.MR.03731.01)

 

41 Redwing Turdus iliacus 

a (0:00-0:02) IJmuiden, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 17 November 2001. In flight. (01.043.MR.00815.01)

b (0:02-0:09) Lauwersmeer, Friesland, Netherlands, 30 March 2003, 07:56. Several in short flight. Background: Dunnock Prunella modularis (03.004.AB.13855.01)

c (0:09-0:26) Amsterdam, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 27 March 2003, 09:43. In flight. Background: Great Tit Parus major and Eurasian Magpie Pica pica. (03.004.AB.11434.02)

d (0:26-0:37) IJmuiden, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 15 November 2001. Sreee (as in flight) and kuk calls of perched individual. Background: Common Starling Sturnus vulgaris. (01.042.MR.15530.01)

 

42 Mistle Thrush Turdus viscivorus 

a (0:00-0:03) Megali Prespa lake, Makedhonia, Greece, 8 May 2002. In flight. (02.024.MR.00210.01)

b (0:03-0:17) IJmuiden, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 15 November 2002. In flight. Background: Fieldfare T pilaris (02.052.MR.05806.01)

 

43 American Robin Turdus migratorius 

a (0:00-0:08) Westchester, New York, USA, 5 January 2001. Small flock flushed from tree. (00.047.MR.03002.01)

b (0:08-0:15) Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario, Canada, 7 August 2000. Adult in flight. (00.045.MR.00412.01)

c (0:15-0:27) Westchester, New York, USA, 5 January 2001. Perched, calling as in flight. (00.047.MR.05653.01)

 

44 Lapland Longspur Calcarius lapponicus 

a (0:00-0:10) IJmuiden, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 29 September 2002. Teu and rattle in flight. Background: Meadow Pipit Anthus pratensis. (02.042.MR.12048.02)

b (0:10-0:15) IJmuiden, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 22 September 2000. Rattles in flight. Background: Tree Pipit A trivialis and Meadow Pipit. (00.045.MR.04619.01)

c (0:15-0:22) IJmuiden, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 22 September 2000. Soft and short teu and rattles in flight. (00.045.MR.04831.01)

d (0:22-0:55) IJmuiden, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 29 September 2002. Mainly teu, in flight. Background: Meadow Pipit and Common Linnet Linaria cannabina. (02.042.MR.11838.12)

 

45 Snow Bunting Plectrophenax nivalis 

a (0:00-0:06) Vardø, Finnmark, Norway, 5 June 2002. Adult male in flight. Background: European Golden Plover Pluvialis apricaria. (02.014.MC.00140a.01)

b (0:06-0:48) IJmuiden, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 31 October 2002. Variety of calls by three in flight. (02.052.MR.03055.01)

 

46 Black-faced Bunting Emberiza spodocephala 

a (0:00-0:11) Yocha-ri, Ganghwa-do, South Korea, 11 October 2002. Taking off. Background: Lesser Sand Plover Charadrius mongolus and large gull Larus (long call). (02.028.AB.05309.02)

b (0:11-0:28) Okgu, Jeollabuk-do, South Korea, 24 October 2002. Several migrating. Background: Common Reed Bunting E schoeniclus, possibly flock of Chinese Penduline Tit Remiz consobrinus. (02.050.MR.00858.02)

c (0:28-0:33) Yocha-ri, Ganghwa-do, South Korea, 12 October 2002. Adult male taking off. (02.028.AB.15012.02)

 

47 Pine Bunting Emberiza leucocephalos

a (0:00-0:09) Principina a Mare, Toscana, Italy, 5 February 2003. Long rattle while taking off (cf call type 7 in Dutch Birding 25: 1-16, 2003), usually longer than equivalent call in Yellowhammer E citrinella (see track 48a). In latter part of recording, also few calls of Yellowhammer. (03.001.MR.12341.01)

b (0:09-0:33) Principina a Mare, Toscana, Italy, 5 February 2003. Most frequently heard calls (cf call type 7 in Dutch Birding 25: 1-16, 2003), practically indistinguishable from equivalent call of Yellowhammer (cf track 48b). Background: Sardinian Warbler Sylvia melanocephala (call at start of recording). (03.001.MR.10900c.21)

c (0:33-0:42) Principina a Mare, Toscana, Italy, 5 February 2003. Perched, possibly diagnostic nasal calls and contact calls as in track 47b (cf call type 3, 4 and 6 in Dutch Birding 25: 1-16, 2003). (03.001.MR.10630.22)

d (0:42-0:58) Principina a Mare, Toscana, Italy, 5 February 2003. Slightly nasal tchi in flight (perhaps intermediate between call type 1 and 4 in Dutch Birding 25: 1-16, 2003). (03.001.MR.11707.02)

 

48 Yellowhammer Emberiza citrinella 

a (0:00-0:13) IJmuiden, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 31 October 2002. Flock of five taking off. (02.052.MR.02118.02)

b (0:13-0:22) IJmuiden, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 30 October 2002. Flock of five in flight. Background: Western Jackdaw Corvus monedula. (02.051.MR.12320.02)

c (0:22-0:37) IJmuiden, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 31 October 2002. In flight. (02.052.MR.02042.02)

d (0:37-0:52) IJmuiden, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 31 October 2002. In flight. (02.052.MR.02925.02)

e (0:52-1:11) IJmuiden, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 31 October 2002. Various calls in flight, including high tik call. (02.052.MR.00633.22)

 

49 Cirl Bunting Emberiza cirlus 

a (0:00-0:06) Col de Sevi, Corsica, France, 14 April 2001, 08:44. Adult. (01.003.AB.05447c.01)

b (0:06-0:22) Zonza, Corsica, France, 18 April 2001, 08:47. Adult. Background: Coal Tit Periparus ater and Common Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs. (01.005.AB.14635.01)

c (0:22-0:36) Akarnatika, Sterea Hellas, Greece, 9 May 2002. Adult. Background: Common Blackbird Turdus merula (02.024.MR.03441.01)

 

50 Ortolan Bunting Emberiza hortulana 

a (0:00-0:07) IJmuiden, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 12 September 2002. Single individual on migration flight. (02.040.MR.11638.10)

b (0:07-0:17) Evros Delta, Thraki, Greece, 2 May 2002. In flight. (02.021.MR.11444.02)

 

51 Cretzschmar’s Bunting Emberiza caesia 

a (0:00-0:04) Baths of Aphrodite, Cyprus, 31 March 2000. Taking offBackground: European Goldfinch Carduelis carduelis (00.008.MR.02359b.11)

b (0:04-0:09) Baths of Aphrodite, Cyprus, 31 March 2000. Taking off(00.008.MR.01957.01)

c (0:09-0:16) Neokhorio, Cyprus, 3 April 2000. Taking off(00.010.MR.03214b.02)

d (0:16-0:33) Baths of Aphrodite, Cyprus, 31 March 2000. Perched and taking off at endBackground: Eastern Black-eared Wheatear Oenanthe melanoleuca and European Goldfinch. (00.008.MR.02359a.01)

 

52 Rustic Bunting Emberiza rustica

a (0:00-0:08) Ganghwa-do, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea, 26 October 2002. Several. (02.050.MR.20110b.00)

b (0:08-0:12) Kennemerduinen, Bloemendaal, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 5 April 2002, 17:43. Male flying short distance between bushes. (02.001.AB.13900.11)

c (0:12-0:32) Seosan, Chungcheongnam-do, South Korea, 25 October 2002, 11:45. Perched. (02.032.AB.04941b.02)

 

53 Little Bunting Emberiza pusilla 

a (0:00-0:06) Ganghwa-do, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea, 26 October 2002. Flying short distance. (02.050.MR.14350a.01)

b (0:06-0:16) Ganghwa-do, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea, 26 October 2002. Shortly after taking off. (02.050.MR.14350b.01)

c (0:16-0:37) Ganghwa-do, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea, 26 October 2002. (02.050.MR.13040.11)

 

54 Yellow-breasted Bunting Emberiza aureola 

a (0:00-0:05) Okgu, Jeollabuk-do, South Korea, 24 October 2002. Subspecies E a ornata. Female before taking off. (02.050.MR.02537b.01)

b (0:05-0:24) Okgu, Jeollabuk-do, South Korea, 16 October 2002. Subspecies E a ornata. Calls of perched individuals, similar to calls given in flight. (Note similarity to calls of European Robin Erithacus rubecula.) Background: Black-faced Bunting E spodocephala (twice, a higher and finer zip than Yellow-breasted Bunting). (02.047.MR.04748.01)

 

55 Common Reed Bunting Emberiza schoeniclus 

a (0:00-0:10) IJmuiden, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 17 October 2001, 10:40. Migrating. Background: Meadow Pipit Anthus pratensis and Song Thrush Turdus philomelos (01.017.AB.10707.11)

b (0:10-0:22) IJmuiden, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 28 September 2002. Two migrating. Background: Meadow Pipit and Grey Wagtail Motacilla cinerea. (02.043.MR.00230.01)

c (0:22-0:28) IJmuiden, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 9 September 2000. Several migrating. Background: Meadow Pipit and Eurasian Magpie Pica pica. (00.045.MR.03952.02)

d (0:28-0:46) IJmuiden, Noord-Holland, Netherlands, 13 October 2001, 11:21. Psieuw and buzz while perched; both call types often heard in flight. (01.017.AB.03127.01)

 

56 Pallas’s Reed Bunting Emberiza pallasi 

a (0:00-0:10) Okgu, Jeollabuk-do, South Korea, 23 October 2002. Distinctive and seldom described call in flight, entirely different from better-known, higher-pitched, diagnostic sparrow-like chilp heard from birds not in flight. Background: nasal flight calls of Common Reed Bunting E schoeniclus. (02.049.MR.13954.12)

b (0:10-0:26) Okgu, Jeollabuk-do, South Korea, 23 October 2002. In flight, same as 56a. Background: psieuw of Common Reed Bunting. (02.049.MR.14705.02)

c (0:26-0:46) Okgu, Jeollabuk-do, South Korea, 23 October 2002. First perched, then in flight. Background: nasal flight call of Common Reed Bunting. (02.049.MR.13047.02)

 

57 Corn Bunting Emberiza calandra

a (0:00-0:04) Lara Bay, north of Paphos, Cyprus, 3 April 2000. Single individual in flight. (00.011.MR.02935.01)

b (0:04-0:11) Lara Bay, north of Paphos, Cyprus, 3 April 2000. Small flock in flight. Background: Cyprus Warbler Sylvia melanothorax (four loud calls towards the end). (00.011.MR.02903.01)

 

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